Historical Timeline

Latest Update: Monday 19 August, 2019

Below is a list events we believe are of cultural significance.  Within this, we focus on major world, Church and Marist events, the latter being in bold.

2022 World Youth Day in Lisbon with the theme ‘Mary rose and went with haste’
(Lk 1:39)

FIFA World Cup is held in Qatar

2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games are held in Tokyo

          World Expo is hosted in Dubai


2019 Elections take place in South Africa

2017  XXII Marist General Chapter

           Australians support same sex marriage in a national
           referendum (September)

           Donald Trump is sworn in as America's 45th President (20 Jan)

2016  Olympic and Paralympic Games are held in Rio de Janeiro

           Pope Francis publishes Amoris Laetitia:  The Joy of Love - 
Post Synodal Apostolic Exhortation on Love in the Family

          Jacques Hamel is murdered in France while saying Mass (26th July)

          200th Anniversary of the Fourvière Pledge (23rd July)

          The United Kingdom votes to leave the European Union (23 June)

          Teresa May becomes Prime Minister of Britain

          Donald Trump is elected President of the United States

2015  Provincial Chapter for the Province of Australia
           (27 - 30 September)

          Malcolm Turnbull is elected by the Liberal Party as Prime Minister
           of Australia (15th September)

          Marist Mission Assembly in Australia (20 - 23 August)

          US Embassy reopened in Cuba (14th August)

          Pope Francis releases his Encyclical Laudato Si (On Care for Our
         Common Home) (18th June)

          World Education Forum is held at Incheon, Korea (May)  

          Two French-Algerian terrorists storm the offices of
          Charlie Hebdo. The jihadists murdered 12 people and injured
          11 others, most of the staff of the
          magazine.  At the time, the staffers were planning their role in an
          anti-racism conference. Shootings in Paris ( 7 January)

          Marist Association of St Marcellin Champagnat is established.

2014  Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 is shot down by pro Russian
          separatist over the Ukraine (17th July) 

        Anti Marxist, Polish Pope John Paul II is canonised.  Pope John XIII
        is canonised

        Royal Visit to Australia

        Israel Gaza War (52 days)

        Marists invited to join the Marist Association of St Marcellin

2013  Tony Abbott is elected Prime Minister (September) 

         Pope Francis publishes Evangelii Gaudium (The Joy of the Gospel)

         At the federal election, Kevin Rudd returns as Prime Minister

         Pope Francis is elected (13th March) saying on the balcony after his
         election:  “The cardinals have gone to the ends of the earth to find the
         new Bishop of Rome”.

         Pope Benedict resigns (28th Feb), the first pope to resign for 600

         Thomas Keneally receives an honorary doctorate from Australian
         Catholic University

2012 Marist Province of Australia re-established (8th Dec)

         Provincial Chapter of Australia (8th Dec)         

         Barak Obama is elected for a second term

         Manus Island Detention Centre opens (closes 2016)

2011  Uprising in Egypt (Jan)

         The Syrian war begins (March)

         Steve Jobs unveils iCloud

         Coalition forces leave Iraq

         Census is held in Australia. The current Catholic population is
         5,439,267 - 25.3%
         of the total population. The number of Catholics born overseas is
         1,283,769. The
         top 5 birthplaces of Catholics born overseas: Italy, UK, Philippines,
         New Zealand and Ireland. (The Tablet 18 February 2017, p.8)

       'In 2010, the Gillard government commissioned a major review of
        school funding, chaired by businessman David Gonski.  At the end
        of 2011, it came back with its recommendations: the establishment
        of a Student Resource Standard, providing
        base funding for every student, supplemented with loadings for
        disability, low socioeconomic background, school size, remoteness,
        the number of Indigenous students and lack of English proficiency.
        Funding should be provided on the basis
        of need, regardless of whether a school was private or public' (p.10).
        (Seccombe, M. (2017, May 6 - May 12). The war on universities. The
        Saturday Paper,
pp. 1,10. 

2010 Canonisation of Mary MacKillop (17th October)

         Generation Alpha period commences (2010 - )

         Mine collapse in Chile

         Hurricane in Haiti kills 200,000 people


2009 Marist Brothers' XXI General Chapter held in Rome

         Civil war ends in Sri Lanka after 35 years.  100,000 people died,
         half of the civilians.

         Barak Obama becomes President of the United States

         Gathered Around the Same Table is published

2008  World Youth Day in Sydney

          United States is in recession

           China replaces Japan as Australia's leading trading partner

           Parliamentary apology is given to indigenous Australians for
           past wrongs (13th February)

2008 - 2010 The Great Recession or Global Financial Crisis

2007  International Mission Assembly Mendes  

           Provincial Chapter Melbourne

           Br Bill Borrell dies (18th July)

          Airbus A380 is launched

          Global Financial Crisis

          The Twitter hastag is born (invented by Chris Messina
          @chrismessina) (23rd August)

2006 Coup in Fiji

         Coup in Thailand

         Twitter is launched

         The University of Notre Dame Australia opens its Sydney campus

2005 London Underground Bombing by terrorists (7th July)

         John Paul II dies

         Stieg Larsen's book 'The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo' is published

         Bali Bombings

         Arthur Miller dies

         Seventh General Conference

2004 The Indian Ocean tsunami, resulting from a 9.1 magnitude
          earthquake, hits
         fourteen countries including Indonesia (26th December).
         It kills 230,000 people

          Indonesia elects a President for the first time

         The James Joyce Seat of Learning, located outside the State Library
          of Victoria, is opened by Colm Toibin on Bloomsday (June 16th)

         Generation E commences (-2024)

         Facebook is launched

         Digital photography commences

2003 Allies invade Iraq in the second Gulf War. 500,000 Iraqis die. (March)

         The Concorde stops flying

         Mao's Last Dancer is published

2002 Bali bombings (October 11)

2001 XX General Chapter

         The Howard Government dispatches special forces to  turn around
         a Norwegian freighter that has rescued stricken asylum seekers.
         (The Tampa moment)

         Terrorism attacks in the US (Sept 11  9/11)  Two passenger planes,
         hijacked by
         terrorists, crash into and collapse the twin-towers of the World
         Trade Centre
         in New York, killing thousands of people. In the combined attacks
        2996 people are killed.

         Taliban is ousted from power in Afghganistan; conflict begins

         Apple launches the ipod

         Wikipedia is founded

         The mining boom ends in Australia

2000  Olympic Games are held in Sydney

          The Euro is introduced

          World Education Forum is held in Dakar, Senegal

          George W Bush is elected President of the United States


1999  NATO bombs Serbia

         Vladimir Putin comes to power in Russia

         First G20 meeting for world finance ministers is held

         The referendum on Australia becoming a republic is lost

          People in East Timor vote for independence, Australian
          peacekeeping troops land in Dili

          Macau ceases to be a Portuguese colony becoming part of China.

          The Massachusetts Institute of Technology coins the phrase
          'The Internet of Things'

          Lutherans and Catholics agree on the doctrine of justification.
          This is expressed in the Joint Declaration signed in Augsburg on
          31 October (God - and God alone freely makes us right - it's not
          what we do)

1998  'In the Footsteps of Marcellin Champagnat' is published

         Commission of Theologians of the Congregation for the Causes
         of Saints declares Br Hereibert's cure miraculous

1997  Britain returns Hong Kong to China

          Tony Blair is elected; The Tories lose 178 seats

          Asian Financial Crisis

          Towards Healing is introduced (March)

          The Aged Care Act is passed in Australia

          A picture is taken with a cell phone for the first time

          Sixth MARIST General Conference

1996 George Pell is appointed the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne

         John Howard's government buys back and destroys 700,000
        Australian owned guns.  The States sign an agreement for
        nationwide gun law reforms.

         Massacre at Port Arthur (28th April)

         Brs Miguel, Julio, Servando and Fernando martyred in the
         refugee camp in Bugobe (October 28th)

1995 Commercialisation of the internet

         The Dayton peace agreement brings the war in Bosnia to a halt
        (21st November)

         Generation Z period commences (1995 - 2009)

         Mary MacKillop is beatified

1994 Nelson Mandela is elected President of South Africa

         Genocide in Rwanda begins (6th April). Within 100 days,
         800,000 people -
         mainly Tutsis - are killed. The Catholic Church has apologised for its

          Chris Mannion and Joseph Rushigajiki are killed (1st July)

          Seven Brothers are assassinated

          Br Henri Vergès is murdered in Algiers

1993  XIXth General Chapter

          Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat are awarded the Nobel Peace
          Prize for the Oslo peace awards

1992 The Mabo decision. The High Court decides Terra Nullius should
         not have been applied to Australia.

         International Day for those with disabilities is proclaimed
         (3rd December)

1992 - 1995 Bosnian Civil War

         Sidney Nolan dies in his Whitehall flat

         Pope John Paul II reaffirms the 'just war' concept

         Pope John Paul II promulgates the Catholic Catechism

1991 SHC Foundation commences

          Sr Irene McCormack is executed  by Shining Path rebels with
          four local men in
          the village of Huasahuasi, Peru for distributing food parcels
          to the poor (21 May)

          ACU is opened (1st January)

          Marist Asian Center is established in the Philippines

1990 Iraq annexes Kuwait initiating the Gulf War

         Promulgation of the Apostolic Constitution on Catholic Universities
          'Ex Corde
         Ecclesiae' by Pope St John Paul II on 15 August.  It is the first
         papal document to
         focus entirely on Catholic Universities

         ACU commences ads a university in its own right

         Poll tax riots in Trafalgar Square lead to the dumping of that tax

         World Education Forum is held in Jomtien, Thailand

         Joan Sutherland's farewell performance is held in Sydney

1990s The AIDS crisis emerges

          The era of privatisation

          The internet emerges


 1989 The Berlin Wall falls (11th Nov); End of the Cold War; 50 million
          people were murdered to further the cause of communism
         (Tolle, p.59); the Soviet bloc collapses

         Launch of Br William Borrell's book An annotated checklist
         of the flora of
         Kairiru Island, New Guinea
at Marcellin College, Bulleen
        (18th September)

        The last Soviet troops leave Afghanistan after nine years of occupation

        Tiananmen Square massacre in Bejing (4th June)

        Ferdinand Marcos dies (1917-1989)

        Bougainville copper mine closes;  violence breaks out in
        Bougainville, the civil war in Papua New Guinea ends

        Tim Berners-Lee invents the web

        The Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) commences
        (January 1st)

         Act of Parliament approves the University of Notre Dame Australia

         The Fifth General Conference takes place

1988  Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini accepts truce with Iraq

         The New Parliament House is opened in Canberra

          Bicentennial celebrations in Australia

          Salman Rushdie publishes his fourth novel The Satanic Verses

1987  Robyn Williams receives an oscar for his performance in Dead Poets Society

          Robert Hughes writes the Fatal Shore

1986  Br Charles Howard launches the Champagnat Movement of
          the Marist Family

        Jean-Claude Duvalier is ousted from Haiti.    During his reign from
        1971 to 1986, 30,000 people are killed

         Space shuttle explodes

         The nuclear plant in the northern Ukrainian city of Chernobyl

1985 General Chapter finalises a new text of Marist Constitutions
          and Statutes. Br  Charles Howard is elected Superior General
         (1985 - 1993)

         Uluru is handed back to its traditional owners (25th October)

1984 China and Britain sign a Joint Declaration for the return of
         Hong Kong to Chinese rule

          Leonard Cohen writes "Hallelujah" featuring it on his album
         Various Positions and writes his Book of Mercy based on the psalms.

1983  Labor comes to power federally in Australia (stays until 1996)

         Bob Hawke becomes Prime Minister

         New Code of Canon Law published

         Marist Melbourne Province Assembly at Kilmore

1982 Capital controls are removed from countries; globalisation is initiated

         Tom Keneally becomes the first Australian to win the Man Booker
         Prize for 'Schindler's Ark'

         Fourth Marist General Conference

         The Brothers' Community closes at Warragul

1981 Homosexuality is decriminalised in Australia

         Greece joins the European Union

         The Millennial generation commences (-1997)

1980 Generation Y, the Millennials are born (1980 - 2000)

         Iraq at war with Iran (1980 - 1988)

         Salvadorian Archbishop Oscar Romero is assassinated by a right
         wing death
        squad at the altar at the start of the Salvadorian Civil War.

         China introduces the one child per family policy 

1980s Personal computer market takes off

          Economic rationalism dominates under the Hawke and Keating

          Australian modernism becomes active right up to the 1980s


1979  The Iranian revolution delivers the Shia clergy power; the monarchy is

          Margaret Thatcher is elected; Britain has almost become
          ungovernable because
          of union power; it produced an economic renaissance

         The Defence of Government Schools case, challenging the
         Federal Government's
         funding of private schools as being unconstitutional, opens in
         Australia (March).
         The case argued the Commonwealth constitution did not permit
         'any law for
         establishing any religion'.  Members of the Sandhurst diocese
         are subpoenaed to give evidence.
         The High Court rules in favour of the laws being valid and not in
         breach of Section 116 of the Constitution on 10 February 1981

         Third Marist General Conference

1978 Israel and Egypt successfully negotiate a peace deal over the Sinai

         Pope John Paul I elected

         Pope John Paul II elected

         Email is invented

1977 Sir Frank Little is appointed Archbishop of Melbourne

          Steve Jobs rturns to Apple

1976  Br Walter Smith becomes Provincial of the Melbourne Province

          Br Heribert Weber is cured (26 July)

          Marist General Chapter; Br Basilio is re-elected Superior General

          Mr Ken Taylor is appointed the first lay principal of Marist Sion
          College Warragul

          Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak build the Apple Computer

          Ted Hughes visits Australia for the Adelaide Festival

          Jimmy Carter is elected President of the United States

          The Government's Lebanon concession allows 12,000 Lebanese
          to enter
           Australia to escape civil war in Lebanon. Most of these
           migrants were Muslims.

          The Vietnam war ends

          The Aboriginal Land Rights Act is passed. The Act was
          pioneered by Gough Whitlam.

1975  The 21st Prime Minister of Australia, Gough Whitlam,
           is dismissed after
           conservative forces block supply to force an election. (11th

         ('Well may we say God save the Queen, because nothing will save
         the Governor General')

         Malcolm Fraser is elected Australia's 22nd Prime Minister.

         Dictator General Franco dies after ruling Spain for 36 years.

         Indonesia invades East Timor because it is seen by the West
         to be communist

         Paul VI publishes Evangelii Nuntiandi

         GST (consumption tax) introduced into Australia

         The White Australia policy ends

         Bill Gates and Paul Allan found Microsoft

         Medicare is introduced (July)

         Papua New Guinea becomes independent

         Saigon falls. Vietnam is reunited under communist rule. (April)

         United Nations designates this year as International Women's Year

          The Equal Pay Act is passed in Britain

          The killing fields era in Cambodia begins (-1979)

1974   Abba wins Euro Vision

          Whitlam abolishes university fees (1st January)

          Cyclone Tracey hits Darwin

         The Boxing Day Test concept begins

         The second Marist General Conference is held

1973 The Karmel Report is published (May).  Increased Federal
         funding for schools follows. The Catholic Education Commission
         in each State readily accepts a request to distribute Federal
         recurrent grants to Catholic schools 'for the purposes intended'.

         Tory Prime Minister Ted Heath takes Britain into Europe

1972  Federal Labor, under Gough Whitlam, is elected to government.
          The new
          Government implemented policies in education, indigenous
          affairs and health.

         Labor had been in opposition for 23 years.

         Bloody Sunday shootings in Northern Ireland

1971 Br Basilio Rueda convenes the first Marist General Conference.
          It lasted 19 days.

         Crocodiles become protected in Australia

1970 Br Cletus Read becomes Provincial of the Melbourne Province

          Paul VI visits Manila

          Germaine Greer publishes 'The Female Eunuch'. It sold 90,000
          copies in the first three months after it was released in Australia.

          Teresa of Avila and Catherine of Siena are proclaimed doctors
          of the Church by Paul VI

1970s  Mental health becomes deinstitutionalised

           The Feminist Movement begins

           Consultants become common place

           Muslims come to Australia

           Spain emerges from dictatorship (late 1970s)

           The digital environment begins (early 1970s)


1969  NASA puts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon.
          Man's first walk on the moon

          The mining boom commences with Poseidon

1968  Thomas (Louis) Merton dies  in Bangkok,  the victim of an
           accidental electrocution and probably a resultant
           heart-attack (10th December)

          General Chapter Document on the Apostolate is published

          Paul VI publishes Humanae Vitae

          The Iran - Iraq war commences

          The National Gallery of Victoria opens (August)

          Anti-Vietnam war demo takes place outside the
          US Embassy in London (17 March)

          Student protests in Paris

          Richard Nixon is elected President of the United States

          Dame Leonie Kramer becomes Australia's first female professor

          Government funding is reintroduced to Catholic Schools in NSW.
          The 1968 student grants are the first since 1882.


1967  Israel takes the Gaza Strip from Jordan and Jerusalem from Egypt.

         Gough Whitlam becomes leader of the Australian Labor Party

         Referendum in Australia gives indigenous Australians rights
        under the
         Constitution such as including them in the census

         Ronald Ryan is hung in Melbourne

         Sweden changes from driving on the left to driving on the
         right (3rd September)

         Leftist riots in Hong Kong against British colonial rule

         The Beatles release Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (25 November)

         Br Basilio Rueda is elected Superior General

1966 Two Australian battalions serve in Vietnam

          Chairman Mao initiates the Chinese cultural revolution (16 May)  It lasts
          10 years. Eight million people die. Schools are closed for 10 years.

          Marists begin their mission in Pakistan (10 September)

1965  The Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei Verbum) is
          promulgated by the Second Vatican Council (18th Nov)

          Ad Gentes is approved by Vatican II.  The Commission drafted
          the decree at the Divine Word Missionaries house in Nemi.

         Declaration on Catholic Education "Gravissimum Educationis"
         is promulgated in the middle of the closing session of Vatican II
         (28th October).  It contains 16 paragraph and around 5,500 words.
        The declaration begins by stating the universal right to education
        and the concept of "Christian education" before
        dealing with issues relating to schools and then higher
        education and theology.

         Pedro Arrupe appointed Jesuit Superior General (1965 - 1983)

         Singapore becomes independent from Malaysia

         W Somerset Maugham dies

         Generation X period begins (1965 - 1979)

1964 The Constitution on the Church (Lumen Gentium) is promulgated by the
         Second Vatican Council (21st Nov)

         Robert Menzies announces the reintroduction of National Service

         Malta becomes independent from the United Kingdom

         The Beatles visit Australia (15th July)

          Jean Vanier, a Canadian Catholic layman, founds the first
          L'Arche community

          Donald Horne writes The Lucky Country.  In it he claims 'sport to many
          Australians is life and the rest is shadow'

          Tom Keneally publishes his first novel 'The Place at Whitton'

1963  Pope Paul VI is elected (21st June)

          Pope John XXIII dies (3rd June)

          President Kennedy is assassinated

          Archbishop Daniel Mannix dies at 99 on Melbourne Cup eve

          Martin Luther King (Jr) proclaims his 'I have a dream speech' (29th August)

          The first nursing home is built in Australia

          The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum Concilium) is
          promulgated by the Second Vatican Council (4th Dec)

          Robert Menzies provides commonwealth money for science laboratories in both
          government and private schools

          Fidel Castro is elected President of Cuba for the sixth time (6th March)

         The Butterfly Effect is a term coined by meteorologist Edward Lorenz

1962 - 65 Vatican II (First Session 11th October - 8th December, 1962)

                              (Second Session 29th September - 4th December, 1963)

                              (Third Session 14th September - 21st November, 1964)

                              (Fourth Session 14th September - 8th December, 1965)

1962  Cuban Missile Crisis

         Aboriginal Australians have the vote for the first time

         India and China are at war

         Algeria gains independence

         Thomas Kuhn publishes The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

         Cultural Revolution in China 1962 - 1976

         Peter, Paul and Mary first sing Puff the Magic Dragon

         John Glenn is the first person to circle the earth in space.

1961  Berlin wall is constructed

         Astronomy disk erected at Parkes

         Hawthorn, coached by John Kennedy (senior), wins the football
         grand final

         Marist leaders first gather in Rome

         Marist Brothers leave Cuba

1960 John F Kennedy is elected President of the United States

1960s Global social revolution


1959  Pope John XXIII announces the calling of Vatican II (25th Jan)

         Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba and the Marxist Revolution
         begins; Fidel Castro conspires to bring the world to the brink of
        Armageddon; US cuts ties with Cuba

        The Debré law in France grants the majority of Catholic Schools
        support from public funds

         Indigenous Australian painter Albert Namatjira dies

1958 Pope John XXIII elected aged 77

         The monaachy is overthrown in Iraq

         Charlie Townes discovers lasers

         General Chapter

1957 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1 (October)

         The Queen's first televised Christmas message is aired (25 December)

         The European Union is established

         The Special Air Service (SAS) Regiment - Australian Army is established

         The Miles Franklin Literary Award is established.  Miles Franklin wrote
         'My Brilliant Career'.

         Australian Slim Dusty sings "there's nothing so lonesome, morbid or drear
         than to stand in the bar of a pub with no beer."

1956 Hungary breaks away from the Soviet Union

         The Soviet Union invades Hungary

         Television is introduced into Australia

         Olympic Games are held in Melbourne

         John Landy doubles back to pick up the fallen Ron Clarke in the
        1500m race

         Ted Hughes marries Sylvia Plath

         British nuclear tests begin at Maralinga, Woomera (1956 - 1963)

1955 Catholic Life Exhibition held in Melbourne

1954  Dogma on the Assumption proclaimed

          The first Australian Flag is flown - the flag of the Southern Cross,
          the Eureka flag (November 29th)

          Royal Visit to Australia; 7 of the 9 million Australians see the
          Royal Visitors

1953  Ulysses is legally allowed to be read in Australia

         The Health Care Act is passed in Australia

1952  India becomes independent

1951  The Refugee Convention prohibits the return of asylum seekers
          back into the arm of their persecutors

          The ANZUS Treaty is signed

         The Menzies Government establishes the commonwealth scholarship
         scheme to pay fees and living expenses

          Hans Urs von Balthasar publishes his book The Theology of Karl Barth:
          Exposition and Interpretation

          St Joseph's School Warragul is founded

1950 The Church considers St John the Baptist De La Salle
         a pioneer in education and makes him the Church's official patron
        of all teachers

        Salvador Dali converts to Catholicism

        The Korean War (1950-1953)

        Pasteurisation of milk is introduced into Australia

        Pope Pius XII proclaims the dogma of the Assumption of Mary
        into Heaven


1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) established

         China becomes the largest communist country

         Taiwan splits from Bejing

         Founding of the People's Republic of China

         The Menzies Liberal Government is elected.  It changed
         Australia's direction from being a social democracy to social liberalism.

         George Orwell publishes Nineteen Eighty-Four

1948 Legislation passed for Apartheid

         The Marist Province of Australia divides into the Sydney and
          Melbourne Provinces being formally established on 1st January, 1948

1947 The Indian Empire implodes

         The British Indian Empire is partitioned into the sovereign states of the
         Dominion of Pakistan (which later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh)
         and the Union of India (later Republic of India) (14-15 August)

          Qantas begins flying the entire Sydney - London route, using
          pressurised 1.749 Constellation planes. Flight time: About five days

1946 The computer is first designed

         Referendum in Australia on social services

         Baby Boomer period begins (1946 - 1964)

         Australian Marist Brothers commence in Melanesia

1945 Satre founds the philosophical review 'Modern Times'

        TNI takes over Indonesia from the British

        The baby boomer generation commences (-1964)

        The Allies drop the second atomic bomb on Nagasaki (9th August).
        The war ends soon after.

        The Allies drop the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima (6th August)

         China is Australia's ally

         Russia liberates Auschwitz, the death camp where 1.1 m people
         perished in the gas chambers, by starvation or disease.  Nearly
         all these people were Jews. (28th January)

         UNESCO is established

         The Brothers return to Mindelheim

1944 D Day - Allies land in Caen, Normandy, France (6th June)

         People assemble on the Champs Elysees to cheer General
         de Gaulle following the 'City of Lights' liberation.

         Penicillin becomes available in Australia

         Robert Menzies founds the Liberal Party in Australia

1943 Academic psychologist based in New York, Abraham Maslow described a
         hierarchy of needs: 1.  food and water 2. security 3. love, belonging
         4. esteem 5. self actualisation. At the time he is a faculty member
         at Brooklyn College. He argues all human actions arise from an
         innate desire to fulfil human needs.

         Satre publishes 'The Flies' about resisting France's collaborationist
         Vichy government

         Coventry Cathedral is bombed

1942 Japan bombs Darwin with 10,000 residents

         Japan invades East Timor

         Pius XII establishes the Vatican Bank

1942 - 1945 Singapore under Japanese occupation. 30,000 Singaporeans
         are killed.

1941 America bombs Pearl Harbour (Dec)

        Darwin is bombed (7th Dec)

        Germany invades Russia (June)

        A parade in Red Square delivers Stalin's message of defiance
        with the German armies massed near Moscow

        Singapore falls to Japan (15th February)

        Japan occupies Hong Kong

        Japan invades Hawaii

         645 Australians die when HMAS Sydney sinks in a sea battle in the Indian Ocean
         during World War II

        John Curtin reaches out to America

        George Pell is born

         Maximilian Kolbe dies taking the place  of a man condemned to death
         in the Auschwitz concentration camp during the Second World War
         (14th August)

1940 Germany defeats France (May)

         Salvador Dali emigrates to the United States

         Marist College Ashgrove opens

         Sir Winston Churchill announces to the people the seriousness of the
         crisis facing them

         Blitz in London (1940 - 1941)

        The Germans penetrate France through Belgium (10th May)

        The Curtin government increases the number of university
        scholarships and allows women to apply


1939 World War II begins (Sept)  Hitler invades Poland (1st Sept)

        Pope Pius XII is elected

1939 - 1945 Seventeen thousand Catholic priests and seminarians serve with the
         German army

1938 Jews flee Germany

         CJ Dennis dies aged 61 (June 22)

          Thomas Merton becomes a Catholic (16th November)

1937 Japan invades China and kills 300,000 people

         Colleen McCullough is born (1937-2015)

         The film Captains Courageous is produced

         Remington introduces the world's first electric shaver

         German Law closes German Catholic schools. The Nazis
         force the removal of the Brothers from education.  They leave Germany.

1936 Jorge Mario Bergoglio (Pope Francis) is born in Flores, a lower
         middle class area in Buenos Aires

         Surrealist (neo Romantist) Salvador Dali paints the Spanish Civil War

         Nazis' intent begins to emerge

         Olympic Games in Berlin

         Six Brothers are martyred in Malaga

         King Edward VIII forfeits his crown and abdicates to marry his
         twice divorced American companion, Wallis Simpson (December)

1934 Poet TS Eliot asks 'what is the knowledge we have lost in this information?'

         Adolf Hitler declares 'I am your Chancellor and President'

1933 Anne Frank settles in Holland

         The German President declares Adolf Hitler Chancellor - within
         six months he began building concentration camps. He remained
         dictator until 1945.

1932 Iraq becomes independent following continuous revolt against British rule

        Pius XI meets Mussolini (21 Feb)

        The Australian Broadcasting Commission is established

        Revolution in Thailand, democracy is introduced

1934 A new statue of Mary is placed in the chapel at Walsingham

1933  Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor

          Marist Brothers found their first school in Cuba

1932 Revolution in Thailand

          Joseph Stalin orders Ukrainian areas in Northern Caucasus to relinquish
          their private farms and join collective farms owned by the State

1931 The 'Teacher's Guide' is published in English

        Guglielmo Marconi sets up the Vatican Radio

         The Marist Brothers take over the Catholic boarding school in
         Deggendorf/Bayern in Germany

         Arquebuse de L'Hermitage begins to be produced

1930 Malcolm Fraser is born (1930 - 2015)

         The Great Depression

         Phar Lap wins the Melbourne Cup


1929 Pius XI promulgates his encyclical on the Christian Education
         of Youth Divini Illius Magistri.  This is still (as on 24th October,
         2015) the only papal document encyclical on education.

         Wall Street crashes

         Marist College Pougkeepsie is founded

1928 The Marist Brothers arrive in Broken Hill

         The great financial crash

         Women get the vote in Britain

1927 Dorothy Day converts to Catholicism

1925 Pius XI establishes the Feast of Christ the King

1924 Lenin dies

         Brothers begin in Munich

         José Basilio Rueda Guzmán is born (16 October)

1923 The Ottoman Empire collapses and is replaced by the Republic of Turkey

         Hitler is put in prison

1922 TS Eliot publishes The Waste Land when he is 34

          Queensland's upper house is abolished

          Benito Mussolini becomes dictator in Italy until 1943

1921 Our Marist Institute is consecrated to St Joseph

         The Irish Free State is established

1920 Qantas commences

         The Anglo-Irish war commences (1920 - 1921)

         Royal Tour of Australia

1920s Black and Tan times in Ireland


1919  The Arab Provinces defeat the Ottoman Turkish Empire and create Iraq

         Treaty of Versailles proclaimed

         WB Yeats writes The Second Coming:


          Turning and turning in the widening gyre

          The falcon cannot hear the falconer;

          Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;

          Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,

          The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere

          The ceremony of innocence is drowned;

          The best lack all conviction, while the worst

           Are full of passionate intensity.


           Surely some revelation is at hand;

           Surely the Second Coming is at hand.

           The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out

           When a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi

           troubles my sight: somewhere in sands of the desert

          A shape with lion body and the head of a man,

          A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,

          Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it

          Real shadows of the indignant desert birds.

         The darkness drops again; but now I know

          That twenty centuries of stony sleep

          Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,

          And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,

          Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?

1918  Armistice Day (November 11th)

         Tsar Nicholas II is murdered along with his family (July 17th)

         The Global Flu epidemic (pandemic) kills tens of millions of people

1917 Russian Revolution

         Referendum to introduce conscription is defeated (January 29th)

1916 The Province of New Zealand is proclaimed by detaching New
          Zealand and the Pacific Islands for the Province of Australia
         (November). It was formally established on 2nd January 1917

         Bibliotherapy is introduced (therapy through reading)

         Gough Whitlam is born (1916 - 2014)

         The Irish Revolution (1916 - 1923)

         The Easter uprising takes place at the Dublin Post Office.  The Irish
         Republic is declared.

         Referendum to introduce conscription is defeated (October 28th)

         Journalists report tens of thousands of women and men attend the anti-
         conscription marches organised by Vida Goldstein and her Women's
         peace army (Australian Author, 47, 2, Dec '15)

          Battle of the Somme in Northern France

         Einstein introduces the theory of relativity

1915 Slaughter of Armenians and other Christians by the Ottoman Government
         (Young Turk triumvirate), known as the Amenian genocide. 1.5 M people
         perish between 1915 and 1923
         (this genocide is still officially denied by the Turkish government).

        Ottomans drive out Christians in Southern Turkey

        The first refrigerator is made

        T S Eliot marries Vivienne

        Thomas Merton is born in France to Ruth Jenkins, from America
        and Owen Merton from New Zealand, itinerant artists who had
        met in Paris (1915-1968)

        Marist Brothers commence at Furth

1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian Empire, is assassinated in
         Sarajevo, Capital of Serbia. He was travelling in a car with the Governor of
         Bosnia, General Oskar Potiorek.  Gavrilo Princip fired the bullet. 

        The British, French and Indians attack Gallipoli seeking to knock
        Turkey out of the war.  

        The Great War begins (August 4th). Australia promises the British
        Empire its fleet and 20,000 men. Sixteen million people die in
        the War.  A Christmas truce is held at Ypres, Flanders.  Soldiers
        from both sides played soccer on Christmas day.
        There are 5 million people in Australia.

        Pope Benedict XV is elected

        Pope Pius IX dies (20 Aug)

        TS Eliot goes to Oxford

        The first crossword is constructed

        Marist Brothers commence in Germany at Recklhausen

1913 Henry Ford introduces the assembly line to car manufacturing

         Daniel Mannix arrives in Australia

1912 The 'Hills Hoist' is designed in Geelong

1911 Frederick Winslow Taylor announces his four principles of "scientific
         management" all of which focus on the definition, supervision and execution
         of well defined facts.


1909 The Government begins to forcibly remove aboriginal children from their homes                (1909 - 1969)

         TS Eliot attends Harvard

         The Bulletin of the Institute is first published

         The International Juniorate is established at Gruliasco

1907 Pedro Arrupe is born (1907 - 1991)

1906 The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra is established. It is Australia's oldest

1905 The Law of Separation between the Church and State in France is enacted.
          This French secularism grew out of the Enlightenment.

          Einstein announces the theory of relativity

1903  The French Parliament rejects without examining it, the petition for
          authorisation of the Institute of the Marist Brothers.  Schools and
          houses received a message to close as soon as possible.

          Marists are expelled from French Schools

          Marist Brothers arrive in Cuba

          The General House is moved to Gruliasco

           The first Marist Canonical Houses, following a decree of Leo XIII,
           are recognised as Apostolic Institutes as true Religious

           The Province of Australia is canonically erected one of the first
           eleven Provinces established

           St Pius X is elected Pope

           An obelisk is built in Melbourne opposite the Trades Hall Building
           with the three eights on the top signifying eight hours of work,
           eight hours of recreation time and eight hours of rest.  The obelisk
           is built in memory of Thomas Galloway of the eight hour day movement.

1901  Queen Victoria dies

         Verdi dies

         Australia captures Papua

         Australian federation - Australia becomes a nation. The opening of the
         first parliament of Australia by the Duke of Cornwall (later King
         George V) takes place on May 9

1900  John the Baptist De La Salle is canonised

           Beginning of the Edwardian Age which was obliterated by the horrors
           of the Western Front.

1900s Frederick Taylor introduces scientific management theories

           John Dewey launches a progressive education movement


1899 Boer War begins (1899 - 1902)

         Henry Lawson earns 53 pounds/year

1897 The Marist Brothers are welcomed to Port Adelaide to open
          the first Marist house in South Australia, then an English colony.

         Sacred Heart College opens at Port Adelaide

         Dorothy Day is born (1897 - 1980)

         Mother Ursula Brown, a Sister of Charity, founds St Columba's
         College, Essendon

1896 The Fourvière Basilica is built

1895 John Deere starts The Furrow

1893 Marist Education begins in Bendigo and at Assumption
         College Kilmore

1892 Alfred Lord Tennyson dies (October)

         Cardinal Moran becomes Australia's first cardinal

1891 Sir Stamford Raffles, a 19th century British civil servant founds Singapore

1890 The first Federation Convention is held in Australia

1890s The Age newspaper circulation reaches 100,000

          The financial crash

          A small chapel is built at Walsingham


1889 Charlie Chaplin is born

         The first woman suffrage bill per se was introduced in Victoria

         The Eiffel Tower is built

1888  Brothers arrive in Suva

          TS Eliot is born in St Louis

1886 Gold discovered at Witwatersrand, South Africa.  This changed
          South Africa
         from being an agricultural society to becoming the largest gold-producer in
         the world.

1883 The Windsor Hotel opens in Melbourne

          The Patrician Brothers come to Australia

1881/2 Laws introduced by Jules Ferry make education free (1881) and then
            compulsory and laïque (1882) and the rupture between priest and
            teacher becomes official

1881 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli is born (Pope John XXIII) (1881 - 1963)

         Royal Tour of Australia

         St Joseph's College, Hunters Hill is established

         Br Francois dies (23 January)

1880 The siege of Glenrowan takes place, Ned Kelly is captured (28th June)

          The Bulletin is established in Australia

         The passing of the New South Wales Public Instruction Act succeeded
          in removing government financial support from church run schools.
          Until now the NSW Colonial government paid the salaries of
          approved teachers in Catholic and other Church schools.  Most
          of the teachers in Catholic schools were subsequently reassigned in
          public schools. Religious Sisters, Brothers and Priests were "found' in
          Europe (Ireland and France in particular) and Australia and for the
          next eighty years, Catholic schools continued with these pioneering
          Religious women and men with support from a small band of lay
          teachers. (Kelvin Canavan, BDN, 5th April 2018)

1880s Germany takes over New Guinea

         Australia pioneers free, secular education

         Melbourne's Windsor Hotel is built


1879 In the encyclical  Aeterni Patris, Pope Leo XIII gives official approval
         to the nineteenth-century revival of a seventeenth-century
          interpretation of St Thomas. The system came to be known
          as neo-scholasticism. 

1878 Pope Pius IX dies

         Stalin is born (1878 - 1928)

         Esperanto is invented by Ludwig Zamenhof

         Karl Benz invents the internal combustion engine in Mannheim, Germany

1873 The Great Depression

         The Province of the British Isles is established. Oceania is included

         in this Province until 1875 when Br John Dullea is named
         Provincial of the Missions of Oceania.

1872 Telegraphic communications commence

         Br Ludovic and his companions entered Sydney Harbour.
         They would begin the first Marist school in Australia at
         St Patrick's, Sydney.

1871 Charles Darwin writes the Descent of Man

1870 - 71  Franco Prussian War

1870  Government Aid is withdrawn from Anglican and Catholic
           Schools in Australia

          The Franco-Prussian war forces Napoleon III into exile

          The third Republic is established in France (1870 - 1940)

          Conquest of the Papal States

          Italian unification

          Thomas Hardy writes 'Far from the Madding Crowd'

           Rerum Novarum is published

           Vatican I is held

1870s The telephone is simultaneously invented by Alexander Graham Bell
           and Antonio Meucci

1869  La Bonne Superiore is published

          Henrietta Dugdale writes to the Melbourne Argus supporting
         female suffrage.
         This is regarded as the first undercurrent of the first wave of feminism in
         Australia (Australian Author, 47, 2, Dec 2015).

1869 - 1870 Vatican I

1868 The Irish Christian Brothers arrive in Australia

         Leprosy discovered not to be contagious

1867 First Royal Visit to Australia

         The first Brothers leave for the Republic of South Africa in a French
         gunboat L'Ephigénie on 12 February. They are Brs Chumald and
         Anatolie (France), Sulpice (Belgium), Faust (England) and
         Anthony (Ireland). They disembarked 63 days later at Simon's Bay
         on 16 April. It needs another two days to take them and their
        belongings to Cape Town by oxwagon.

1865 Last African American slaves freed in America

         Cardinal Wiseman dies

1864 Richard Strauss is born - the last Romantic (11th June)

1863 Marcus Clarke, Melbourne's original radical, arrives in Melbourne.
          He writes the classic novel 'For the term of his Natural Life'.

          The Marist Brothers of the Schools are officially approved
           by the Vatican as Fratres Maristae a Scholis (FMS)

1862  Mexico defeats France

1861  Victor Hugo publishes Les Miserables

          The first Melbourne Cup horse race is run

1860 Italy is reshaped

         Abraham Lincoln is elected 16th President of the United States

         Br Francois resigns as Superior General. There are 2000 Brothers and
         379 establishments

1859 The Colony of Queensland is established by Queen Victoria (6th June)

         Charles Dickens writes A Tale of Two Cities

1858 Mary appears at Lourdes

         First game of Australian Rules played between Scotch College
         and Melbourne Grammar (with forty a side)

1857 St Vincent's Hospital founded in Sydney

         The East India Company rules two thirds of the sub continent

         British forces retake Delhi

         The Academy of Mary Immaculate is opened in Melbourne

1856  The Biography of St Marcellin Champagnat is published,
          written by Br John Baptist Furet

         1856 Indians first come to Australia

1855 First railway established in Australia from Redfern to Parramatta (actually

1854  In a papal bull on December 8th, Pope Pius IX promulgates the
          Dogma of the Immaculate Conception (Mary is born without sin).

         The Marist Constitutions are approved

         The Age newspaper begins publication

         The Eureka Stockade takes place in Ballarat

         The Goolwa - Port Elliot railway is opened

1853  The Code of Teaching Practice is passed

          The 'Teacher's Guide' is published in French

1852 The second Empire is established in France (1852 - 1870)

          Br Francois becomes Superior General

          The Brothers of Oceania come under his direct governance
          since Oceania is the mission of Beaucamps

1851  Louis Napoleon declares himself Emperor Napoleon III

          John Henry Newman, England's most notable Catholic intellectual,
         gives a series of lectures on 'The Idea of a University'

         Port Elliot is named after Sir Charles Elliot

         The Marist General Chapter commences (1852-1854)

         The Rule of Life is passed

1851 Legal recognition is granted to the Institute of the Marist Brothers
         as an association of public utility.

          Port Elliot, in South Australia, is declared a seaport

1850 Restoration of the Hierarchy in Britain

         St Mary's University Twickenham is founded

          Falloux Law in France

          Pentridge is built

          Australia's oldest university, The University of Sydney is founded

          Marist Brothers arrive in Napier.

1850s Transport in North America is revolutionised by a massive
           railway-building boom.


1848 The Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
          becomes immensely influential eventually capturing the Russian and
          Chinese states and challenges the Christian view of life in all states

          Revolution in France. The second Republic is established (1848 - 1852)

          Revolution in Ireland

1847  Sisters of Charity arrive in Hobart

1846 Pius IX is elected

         Vincent Palotti founds the Pallotines - a Society of priests and brothers

         Marie Françoise Perreton goes to the mission on Wallis Island

1845 Marist Fathers hold their General Chapter and decide they should
         no longer supervise the Marist Brothers' teaching.

         Marist Missionary Sisters are founded

         Irish Famine kills 1.5 million Irish and sends another 1.5 million to
         other countries (1845 - 1851)

1844 Gerard Manly Hopkins is born (1844 - 1889)

         Friedrich Nietzsche is born in Germany (15 October) (1844 - 1900)

         Street posting boxes are introduced in Australia

1842 St Mary of the Cross (MacKillop) is born in Marino Cottage,
         7 Brunswick St Fitzroy (15th January) (1842-1909)

         China cedes Hong Kong island to Britain following the first opium war.

         University of Notre Dame is founded (November)

1840 Marcellin Champagnat dies at the Hermitage surrounded
          by his Brothers.

         At this time there are 280 Brothers in 48 establishments.

         The Tablet is founded

         Ottomans behead 800 Christians in the Italian town of Otranta after they
         refused to convert to Islam

         The Treaty of Waitangi is struck between the Crown and a group of
         Maori chiefs in New Zealand

1840s Described by Charles Dickens in London as the 'hungry forties'

1839  Fr Champagnat appoints Br Francois as Director-General
           of the Brothers

          His two assistants are also elected

1838 The first Sisters of Charity arrive in Australia on the Francis Spaight (31st
         December).  They were the first religious women in Australia.

         Aboriginal prisoners are sent to Rottnest Island.  370 die and are
         buried there.

1837 Queen Victoria takes the throne and takes up residence at
         Buckingham Palace

         The Little Brothers of Mary arrive in Oceania. They are sent by

         Marcellin Champagnat as part of a contingent of Marist
         missionaries, of whom the Superior is Fr Colin.

         Marcellin Champagnat affiliates a lay benefactor to the Little
         Brothers of Mary

1836 Hermitage Chapel is opened

         Marcellin and his fellow Marist priests profess their vows for the
         first time on the Feast of Our Lady of Mercy.

         The Society of Mary is recognised in Rome as a Religious Institute
         on the condition that the new Society adopts Oceania as its new
         mission territory

         Champagnat's brothers are integrated into the Society of Mary

         The retreat at the Hermitage is preached by Fr Colin

         Fr Champagnat missions the first Brothers to Western Oceania

         South Australia is declared a British Province

1835 Melbourne is founded

1834  Uprising at Lyons

           Britain ends its slave trade

1833  Frederick Ozanam founds the St Vincent de Paul Society in Paris

         The Guizot Law, requiring all teachers to be authorised by the Government, is
         passed in France

         10 Catholic schools have been established

1832 Student led uprisings in Paris

1830s Cholera epidemic in Ireland

1830 Revolution in France.  The Bourbon monarchy (royalty) is overthrown.

         Sisters of Charity School opens in Gardiner St., Dublin

1829 Catholic Emancipation in Britain

1828 Leo Tolstoy is born (9th September)

1825  The building of the Hermitage in France is inaugurated

1824 Brothers move from La Valla to the Hermitage

         Jean-Claude Colin forms the first community of Marist Fathers

         Jean-Marie Chavoin and eight Sisters form the first community of Marist

1823 Marcellin and Br Stanislaus become lost in a snowstorm. This is referred to
         as the Memorare in the Snow Event (February) WFR7

1822 Marcellin calls together his senior Brothers to seek their counsel

1819 Museo del Prado opens

1817 Marcellin Champagnat arranges for his first two recruits, Jean-Marie
          Granjon and Jean-Baptiste Audras to live at La Valla and in so doing founds
          the Little Brothers of Mary (2nd January). They became the first Marist
          Brothers and the date became the Foundation Day.

          Others to join this founding community were Antoine Couturier, Barthélemy
          Badard, Gabriel Rivat and Jean-Baptiste Furet.

        Jeanne-Marie Chavoin founds the Marist Sisters

        English poet, Lord Bryon decides to live in exile in Geneva

1816 Marcellin and seven other seminarians are ordained by Bishop Dubourg of
         New Orleans

         Twelve Marists, eight newly ordained priests and four seminarians aged
         between 20 and 34, (including Marcellin Champagnat
         aged 28) make their pledge in the chapel of Notre Dame de Fourvière in
         France to form a Society of Mary (23rd July)

        Marcellin is appointed curate to the parish priest Fr Rebod at La Valla

        Marcellin visits the Montagne household in Les Palais to tend their dying son,

        17 year old Jean-Baptist (28th October)

        Marcellin insists 'We must have Brothers' (Lanfrey, 2017).                                     

        Ordinance regarding education proclaimed in France

         War and Peace is published.  Napoleon features as a major character

         First Australian Government Primary school begins in East Newcastle

1815 Sisters of Charity founded in Ireland by Mary Aikenhead

         Wellington triumphs over Napoleon at Waterloo saving Britain and other parts of           Europe

         Cholera rages in Dublin

         The Bishop of Grenoble ordains Marcellin and his companions as deacons
         five days after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo

         The Commission of Public Instruction  decrees  every 'commune to take the
         necessary means to ensure that its local children receive primary education, and
         for the poor it is free' Sammon, 2003, p.22).

1814 The Restoration of the Bourbons in France (1814 - 1848)

        Napoleon's empire collapses

        First edition of The Times is published

        The Society of Jesus is restored by Pope Pius VII after a forty one year suppression
        (7th August)

1812 Marcellin enters the Major Seminary

         Napoleon invades Russia

         'When Napoleon sat down in Paris with his  generals around the table to decide
         how to invade Russia, they were making strategy. But what makes a million
         French troops march to Moscow? That is culture! (Braun, 2016, 18)

1810 Marcellin's mother dies

1810 - 1811 British invade Dutch held Java

1808 Gabriel Rivat is born at the Maisonettes

1805 Marcellin enters the Minor Seminary

         Napoleon makes his Dukes Kings

1804 The first Empire is established in France (1804 - 1814) with Napoleon
         as Emperor. Napoleon establishes a concordat with the Church.

         Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor

1803 Napoleon restores the De La Salle Brothers

         Secularisation of all monasteries in Germany (taken by the State)

         First recorded public Mass said in Australia

1802  Victor Hugo is  born (1802 - 1885)

         Napoleon is elected First Consul for life

1801 A Concordat with Rome is signed by Pope Pius VII signifying Catholic clergy
         returning from exile to land and premise that were largely owned by the State.

1800 A government report on education states 'The young are living in the most
          frightful ignorance and with alarming dissipation ...  they have no concept of the
          Divinity, no concept of what is just and unjust' (McMahon, 1994, p.11)

          The first priests arrive

1800s Soren Kierkehaard coins the phrase existentialism (a philosophy that
           emphasises the isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent
           universe). He influenced philosophers who went on to espouse the view that
           God is dead.  After World War II, existentialism was taken up by Jean Paul
           Sartre and Albert Camus. (Ostrow, R. (2017, 20th February). New Age of Angst.
           The Australian.) 


1799  Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power in a coup d'etat (November)

1798  Irish uprising

1795  German philosopher Immanuel Kant writes his essay 'Perpetual Peace'
           concluding that citizens of a democratic republic are less likely to support their
           government in war because this would mean calling down on themselves all the
           miseries of war.

1792 The First Republic is established in France (1792 - 1804)

1793 Maoris first come to Australia

1791 Battle of the Boyne

          Catholic Relief Act allows Catholics to attend Mass

1790s Assault on Christianity

1789  Bastille Day (14th July)  The French Revolution commences bringing to an end
          an alliance between Church and State which had strengthened during both the
          Renaissance and the subsequent Age of Enlightenment.

         Marcellin Champagnat is born in a hamlet at Le Rosey on 20th May.

        The King of France convenes the Estates General (5th May)

        Georgetown Catholic University in Washington is established. Georgetown is the
        USA's oldest Catholic and Jesuit University.

1787 Mary Aikenhead is born (1787 - 1858)

1786 Jeanne-Marie Chavoin is born (1786 - 1858)

        St John Vianney is born (1786 - 1859)

1788 The British First Fleet lands in Botany Bay (on a Saturday) (January 18 - 20)

          After concluding Botany Bay was unsuitable, the First Fleet sailed to Sydney
          Cove and established the British Colony.

          First Catholics come to live in Australia (mainly Irish convicts)

1776 American War of Independence. England loses its North American colonies.
         America declares independence (4th July)

1775 Watt launches the steam engine

1773 The Society of Jesus is suppressed by Pope Clement XIV

1772 Captain Cook begins his second Pacific voyage

1770 Captain Cook arrives at Botany Bay and discovers the east coast of "New

1760 The Industrial Revolution commences in England


1748 Jeremy Bentham is born (15th February) (1748 - 1832) 'The greatest happiness
         of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation'.

1738 Arthur Phillip is born (13th July)  (1738 - 1814) (Captain of the First Fleet to
         found Australia)

1726 Gulliver's Travels is published

1719  John the Baptist De La Salle dies on 7th April (Good Friday)

1711 David Hume is born (7th May) (1711-1776)

1710 Queen Anne 's statute gives birth to the law of copyright. (Today in Australia
         copyright lasts for the lifetime of the artist, plus seventy years).

1703 John Wesley is born (1703 - 1791)

1702 Act of the United Kingdom (England and Scotland unite)

1700s Industrial Revolution commences (late 1700s)


1697 Dutch explorer Willem de Vlamingh lands in Western Australia

1694 St Paul of the Cross is born (the Founder of the Passionists) (1694-1775)

1692 Witch hunt in Salem, Massachusetts. 14 women and 5 men are executed for
         witchcraft. The people of Salem are made up of Puritans, families who sailed to
         North America to escape religious persecution.

1690 Battle of the Boyne is fought in Ireland (won by the Protestants)

1688 The Glorious Revolution in England; William of Orange becomes king displacing
         James II

1687 Isaac Newton publishes his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
         bringing the scientific revolution to a close. From now on, science reigns over
         theology in the that that that that that the are the that that are the that the are the
         that that that that the that are are a academies of Europe.

1686 John the Baptist  de la Salle and twelve of his teachers bound themselves by
         religious vows and decided to henceforth call themselves Brothers of the
         Christian Schools

1683 The Turks attack Vienna

1670  Ignatius defends angels

1666 The Great Fire of London - burnt for four days (September)

1661 Louis XIV comes to power in France

1660 Charles II's Restoration

1651 John Baptist de la Salle is born in Reims (1651 - 1719). He writes sixteen

1650 The close of the Thirty Years' War


1649 Charles 1 is executed; Massacre at Drogheda

1648 The Treaty of Westphalia which ended the post-Reformation religious wars and
         set down firm state borders

1641 James-Jacques Olier founds the Society of St Sulpice

1640 Civil War commences in England

1638 Dutch theologian (after whom Jansenism is named) Cornelius Jansen dies

1625 Charles 1 is beheaded and replaced by parliamentary rule

1624 English poet John Donne writes 'No Man is an Island'

1622 Teresa of Ávila, Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier are canonised

1620 The Pilgrim Fathers settle in America

1618 The Thirty Years' War begins (1618-1648)  (Protestantism vs Catholicism)

1616 Shakespeare dies

          Copernicus' book 'On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres' is placed on the
          Spanish Inquisition's Index of Prohibited Books because it held that the sun
          rather than the earth is the centre of the universe.

1615  Don Quixote is published

         The Portuguese arrive in Timor Leste

         Spanish Jesuit Rodriguez publishes the Practice of Christian Perfection 

1614 The English Jesuits in Louvain found Heythrop College

        Christianity is outlawed in Japan

1613 Shakespeare purchases the Blackfriars Gatehouse in London on March 10th for
         140 pounds

1611 The King James Bible is published

1608 Jean-Jaques Olier is born (1608 - 1657)

1607 Caravaggio paints The Seven Acts of Mercy. The painting never leaves the church
         in Naples where it was painted.  He paints of 'the acts of charity required of the
         faithful, including burying the dead, feeding the hungry, and clothing and
         sheltering the homeless (Lawson, 2016, 21)

1605 Philip IV becomes king

         King Lear is published

1603 James VI succeeds Elizabeth 1

1603 - 1606 Shakespeare writes King Lear

1601 Caravaggio paints Supper at Emmaus which is located at the National Gallery,

17C Science explodes

        Baroque architecture begins


1599 Shakespeare writes Henry V

1577 St Teresa of Avila writes The Interior Castle This book results in her becoming a
         Doctor of the Church

1571 Dominican Pope Pius V rallies Christian armies from all over Europe to defend
         the continent against a Muslim fleet at the Battle of Lepanto off the coast of
        Western Greece. The Catholic states defeat the Islamic Ottoman Empire.

1568  Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross together found the first convent of the
          Discalced Carmelites

1564  Galileo is born

          Shakespeare is born (possibly 23rd April)  (Died 23rd April 1616).  Shakespeare
          is described as the Father of Modern English Literature)

         Michelangelo dies (89 years of age). Michelangelo designed St Peter's Basilica and
         painted the Last Judgement on the wall of the Sistine Chapel

1563 Teresa founds her first new convent in Ávila, after receiving papal approval for
         her principles of absolute poverty and renunciation of property, as well as
         reviving the Carmelites. (Pepinster, C. (2016). In the footsteps of a saint. The
         Tablet, 270
(9179), 8-9.)

1562 Teresa opens her first new monastery outside Ávila's city walls.

1559 Elizabethan Settlement

1558 Elizabeth 1 accedes to the throne

1556 Charles V abdicates the throne

1554 The Jesuits establish a College in Brazil

1550s Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) paints with a freer, more charged brush stroke


1549  First Christian missionary arrives in Japan

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563 The Council of Trent is held; there are 25 sessions; the importance of art is

                   The Council affirms that 'Christ is truly, really and substantially present in
                   the Holy Eucharist (S.XII, 1st canon)

                  During the fourth session, in 1546, the Church declares the Book of Sirach
                  (Ecclesiasticus) canonical

                   Protestants accuse Catholics of having too many saints; Francis of Assisi
                   becomes a role model after the Council of Trent

                  The Council of Trent mandates formation in monastery-like clerical

Scientific Revolution

1543 Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of Celestial Orbits
explains how the earth revolves around the sun, not vice versa.
         The scientific revolution is launched.

1542 John of the Cross is born (1542 - 1591)

1541 The Irish Parliament gives Henry VIII the title of king of Ireland

1538 St Ignatius Loyola celebrates his first Mass

1536  French lawyer who fled to Basel, Switzerland publishes his 'Institutes of
          Christian Religion', the first systematic treatise of the new reform movement

         Anne Boleyn is beheaded (19th May)

1535 and 1542 Henry VIII oversees the union of England and Wales with the laws in
         Wales acts

         Thomas More is executed by decapitation (July 6)

1534 The act of supremacy is declared. Henry VIII, incensed by Pope Clement VII's
         refusal to grant him an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon,
         repudiates papal authority and establishes the Anglican Church with him as
         supreme head. Parliament begins to make laws affecting all aspects of life,
         especially in religious practice and doctrine, which had previously been under the
         authority of the church alone.

         Soldier turned mystic, Ignatius of Loyola founds the Jesuits in Paris

         Thomas More is arrested and tried for treason

1530s (late)  Henry VIII dissolves the monasteries to sever ties with the Catholic

1529 King Henry VIII appoints Thomas More Lord Chancellor of England

1521 The Catholic Church excommunicates Martin Luther

          King Henry VIII  knights Thomas More

1520 Luther writes The freedom of a Christian

1520s Ignatius of Loyola is twice imprisoned by the Spanish Inquisition

1517  On October 31st, the eve of All Saints' Day, Martin Luther publishes and posts
          his 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, an act which splits
          the Church and signals the commencement of the Reformation. Luther, a pastor
          and professor at the University of Wittenberg, deplored the entanglement of
          God's free gift of grace in a complex system of indulgences.

          'This late medieval world in which Luther made his protest was one in which all
          social, political, economic and cultural structures of daily life were infused with
          religious meaning, meaning shaped and mediated by the religious authority of
          the church. This was the landscape into which the early reformers - Luther,
          Zwingli, Calvin and their followers - were born, educated and ordained and from
          which Protestantism emerged, as much a creation of the late medieval church is a
          protest against it. They set in motion the fragmentation of Christendom into a
          plurality of confessional communities deeply divided from one another by their
          conflicting views of these Christian truths' (Dillon, 2016, 18) .

          Raphael paints the Madonna of the Rose

1516 The Reformation takes place

          Thomas More publishes his famous book of fiction entitled Utopia

1515 Teresa is born in Ávila, the walled town west of Madrid on 28th March (1515-

          The Bible is printed in England

          Michelangelo completes his painting 'The Creation of Adam'.

1513 - 1514 Machiavelli writes 'The Prince'

1512 - 17 The fifth Lateran Council takes place.  In 1524 the Council consults
                  Copernicus on the calendar question.

1504  Ferdinand and Isabella free Spain from the hold of the Moors

1538 Charles Borromeo is born (1538 - 1584)

          Henry VIII burns the chapel at Walsingham

1533 King Henry VIII passes the Act of Restraint of Appeals

1500s The papacy is deeply involved in the political life of western Europe



1493 Columbus returns from the New World

1492 Columbus discovers the New World

        The Jews are expelled from the Iberian Peninsula

1491  Ignatius of Loyola is born (1491 - 1556)

          Henry VIII is born

1485 King Richard III is slain in battle (1452 - 1485)

1485 - 90 Titian is born (1485-90 - 1576)

1478 The first Inquisition is held

1476 William Caxton sets up the first printing press in England

1477 Thomas More is born

1475 Michelangelo is born

1472 The York Minster is consecrated

1469 Machiavelli is born (1469-1529).  He writes The Prince.

1468 Pope Paul 111 is born (1468 - 1549)

1453 The Fall of Constantinople

1450 Johannes Gutenberg invents the moveable type printing press


1431 - 45 The Council of Florence (also known as Basel-Ferrara-Florence-Rome)

1429 Joan of Arc saves France by defeating the English

1425 Catholic University of Leuven is founded

1415 Pope Gregory XII resigns

1414 - 18  The Council of Constance

1400s Queen Isabella is born.  Spain does not exist.

15 C The Medicis are a prominent, well-to-do family of bankers.  They bring
         together and fund many of the great artists, philosophers, architects and
         financiers in Florence.  The innovative works of many of these individuals
        launches the Renaissance.


1395 The mystic Julian of Norwich publishes her Revelations of Divine Love. It is
         the first book to be written by a woman.

1368 The Ming Dynasty begins in China


1337 - 49 Richard Rolle translates all the psalms into English

1324 Dante dies

1320 Scottish Declaration of Independence (6th April)

1314 Dante publishes Inferno, the first part of his The Divine Comedy

1311  The Council of Vienne

1300s Tamerlane destroys Baghdad's thriving Christian city

           Avignon Papacy

           The Black Death occurs in Europe

14th - 17th Centuries  The European Renaissance recaptures classical traditions


1274  The Second Council of Lyons.  Marriage is included in the list of the seven

1267 Roger Bacon is the first scholar in Europe to write about the Scientific Method.
         He writes in his Opus Majus 'At first one should believe those who have made                experiments or who have faithful testimony from others who have done so ...                  experience follows second, and reason comes third.' (Duggan p.19)

         2nd Crusade

1255 A small chapel is built at Walsingham


1248 First Crusade

1245 The First Council of Lyons

1225 Thomas Aquinas is born (1225-1274).  He becomes a Dominican friar and
         Doctor of the Church.  Thomas 'was a giant of the mind who, in his self-effacing
         manner, dared to attempt almost impossible goals: use the pagan philosophical
         system of Aristotle to express the Christian mystery in intelligible terms' (Bible
         Daily 2016, 28 Jan)

1223 St Francis makes the first nativity crib

1215  The Fourth Lateral Council gives official status to Mary's perpetual virginity and
          her name is inserted into the Roman Canon (Coates, 2000)

         St Louis IX, King of France is born (1215-1270). He died of the plague during the
         8th Crusade.

        The Magna Carta is signed reluctantly by King John at the demand of his
         rebellious barons. (15th June)  Written in Latin, it is sealed by King John with
         27 barons and bishops  named as supervising its drafting.  It crystallised that
        the power of a ruler is not absolute. This event signals the beginning of politics
        as we know it today.  It curtailed royal powers and promoted civil rights.

         Christian, Muslim and Jewish scholars study together in Baghdad

1209 The Carmelites are founded

1201 Labyrinth is laid in the Chartres Cathedral

1200s Meister Eckhart teaches

           Members of Religious Orders first express their consecration through the three

           University lectures commence

           Thomas Aquinas develops the 'just war' theory


1179  The Third Lateran Council

1170 St Dominic is born (1170 - 1221)

         The chapel of the Virgin Mary is built and dedicated to Mary. It is restored
         in 1751

C12 Salve Regina is composed


1156 Munich is established

1139 The Second Lateran Council

1123 The First Lateran Council

1100s Christians from Europe send waves of crusaders to take back Jerusalem, as the
           Middle East had become Islamic


1090 St Bernard of Clairvaux is born

1068 William the Conquerer builds Warwick Castle in Warwickshire, England

1066 The Normans defeat the English (Normal Conquest) at the Battle of Hastings

1054  The Churches of East and West split over questions about the papacy



1000s Gothic architecture begins

          The papacy imposes mandatory celibacy on all diocesan presbyters and bishops
           in the West




960 - 1279 Age of the Sung Dynasty in China


900s Romanesque architecture begins


869 The Council of Constantinople IV


813  The Council of Tours approves and encourages vernacular translations
       and homilies to aid understanding

C9 Pilgrims establish the Camino,. walking to the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
      in Spain where the bones of St James are said to be buried. It takes one month to
      walk the 800km


787 The Council of Nicea II


8th - 15th Centuries  The Moors occupy Spain


680 The Council of Constantinople III

661 Ali, the fourth caliph, is murdered


622 Mohammed flees from Mecca to Medina

618 - 907 Age of the Tang Dynasty in China

7th - 10th Centuries  Good critical study of Islam takes place


596 St Augustine, the Apostle of the English, arrives in England

553 The Council of Constantinople II

Mid C6 Constantinople reaches her apogee


6th Century  Celtic monks settle on Caldey Island, off the southern tip of Wales


476 Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the West, is overthrown by the Germans.
       The Roman Empire falls.

451 The Council of Chalcedon reaffirms the two natures of Jesus and declares Mary as
       ever Virgin (Coates, 2000)

450 St Brigid of Kildare is born (450-525)


431  The Council of Ephesus gives Mary the title of Theotokos simply to counter the
        influences of Docetism (which claimed that human flesh is evil and therefore
        Jesus passed through Mary's body but not like a normal human being) and
       Gnosticism (which emphasised Jesus' divinity by claiming that He did not pass
       through the normal human birth process) (Coates, 2000).

5th and 6th Centuries see great waves of migration


Late 4th Century  The Nicene Creed takes its present form (MacCulloch p.31)

385 St Jerome arrives in the Holy Land where he spends more than 36 years
       as a translator of the Bible

381  The Council of Constantinople I

379  Constantine declares Christianity the Italian State Religion

354 St Augustine of Hippo is born (354-430)


347  St Jerome is born (347-420)

        St John Chrysostom is the first to use the Marian title Mary, Help of Christians

        St Chrysostom is born (349 - 407)

330 Constantinople is founded by Roman Emperor Constantine at the site of the
       Greek colony Byzantium on the western shore of the Bosphorus: the juncture of
       the West and the East. The new Rome evolved into a Greek-speaking world power;
       a fusion of Greek and Latin culture without the enduring prestige of the classical
       or allure of the pagan. (Slattery, 2016, p.26)

325  The Council of Nicea I defined Easter as the first Sunday following the first full
        moon after the beginning of Spring (21 March).

301 Armenians adopt Christianity. The Armenian Christian culture is born

4C  St Augustine defines the 'just war' theory

      The clerical state emerges through the Constantinian fusion of the Catholic
     Church and the Roman Imperial State.  The Roman Empire transfers the imperial
     "hierarchical" privileges from the pagan priesthood to the ordained servant-leaders
      of the Catholic Church (Commonweal, 22/04/2018)





235 - 238 Rome has seven emperors in three years


177 Pothinus, the leader of the first Christians to come to France, is martyred.


132 - 135 Second Jewish revolt (led by Bar Kochba) against Rome crushed; Hadrian
                expels all Jews from Jerusalem and renames the city Aelia Capitolina

107 Ignatius, the second bishop of Antioch, is martyred.  He wrote seven letters on his
       way to martyrdom, including a letter to Polycarp.

100 It becomes clear Jesus is not going to return imminently - the first Great

1st C  Jewish scholars in Alexandria want to make Scripture more accessible as Hebrew
           is no longer a living language. 

2nd C  Justin Martyr, writing in the middle of the first Century, proposed that
            Hellenistic wisdom and Christianity were perfectly capable of being

C1 - C2 Rome flourishes


90 - 140 Paul writes his three pastoral epistles (two to Timothy and one to Titus)

90s The Gospel of John is written

80s Matthew writes his Gospel (to the Jews)

       Luke writes his Gospel

79 An eruption from Mt Vesuvius buries Pompeii

73 Final defeat of the Jewish rebels at Masada

70 The Jewish Temple is destroyed (MacCulloch p.27)

     Jerusalem falls under the Roman Emperor Titus

     Dispersal of the Jews

     Mark writes his Gospel

     Roman armies under Titus quell the first Jewish revolt and destroy the Second Temple

     A new form of Judaism is emerging.  Temple sacrifice is replaced by focusing on the

69 Nero is murdered

ca 67 Martyrdom of Peter and Paul in Rome by Nero

66 Galilean territory is invaded by Rome

65 - 67 Paul dies in Rome

64 Great fire of Rome; Christians' perscution

58 - 63 Paul is arrested, imprisoned at Caesarea, and then sent to Rome for trial

55 Paul is shipwrecked in Malta

     Nero becomes Emperor of Rome at the age of 16

54 - 57 Paul's Third Missionary Journey

52 Paul writes his second letter to the people of Thessalonica

50 First Council of Jerusalem

c50 Paul writes his first letter to the Thessalonians

50s Letters of Paul


49 - 52 Paul's second missionary journey (earliest Pauline letter to the
             Thessalonians - ca50)

ca 49 Apostolic Council in Jerusalem; Mission to the Gentiles confirmed

46 - 49 Paul's first missionary journey into Asia Minor

37 Nero is born (37-68)

35-37 Saul (Paul) of Tarsus is converted to Christianity 

30 Crucifixion of Jesus by the Romans in Jerusalem

28 Jesus is baptised by John

27 John the Baptist begins to preach

     Beginning of Jesus' public ministry

26 - 36 Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator in Judea

18/19 Antipas builds Tiberias on the shores of Lake Galilee



4ca Jesus is born

      At the time of Jesus, Palestine is divided into three regions: Galilee in the north,
      Judea in the south and Samaria in the middle.

20 Jewish scholar Philo of Alexandria (20BCE - 50), an older contemporary of Jesus
      dialogued with Greek culture

27 The Pantheon is built in Rome

30 Building of the Temple commences

31 Roman Emperor Augustus begins his reign (31 BCE - 14 AD)

35 Herod the Great

37 Herod takes Jerusalem with the help of Roman troops

     Herod the Great becomes (puppet) king of Judea

40 The Roman Senate names Herod allied king and friend of the Roman people

44 Julius Caesar dies

63 General Pompey enters Jerusalem (Spring)

     Galilee becomes becomes part of the Roman Province of Syria

      Romans achieve world domination; Roman General Pompey conquers Palestine

1st C Nero blames the Christian Community for the fire of Rome

          Canonical books compiled as the Old Testament; Inter-Testamental literature
          developed. The books we call the Old Testament (more or less the Jewish
          Tanakh) were mostly written in Hebrew, with some Aramaic and Greek. As
          early as the 1st century BC, Jewish scholars in Alexandria wanted to make
          Scripture more accessible, as Hebrew was no longer a living language.



100 Julius Caesar, later a Roman Emperor, is born (100 to 44)

110  Inauguration of the consuls in Rome (January 1)

128 The Samaritan temple is destroyed by John Hyrcanus, a high priest of Judea

133 Rome is the first city to reach a population of one million people

150 The dissident monks of Qumran withdraw into the desert

164 Rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem desecrated by Antiochus
      (commemorated on the Feast of Hanukkah)

167 - 163 Hasmonean Period

167 - 164 Jewish Maccabean Revolt against the policies of the Greek Seleucid ruler,
       Antiochus IV

175 Wars of the Maccabees

       Maccabean Rule

       Rise of the Pharisees and Saducees

168 - 164 Persecution by Antioch IV Epiphanes



200 - 175 Book of Sirach or Ecclesiasticus is written; a book of ethical teachings

218 Hannibal, a Carthaginian general, with 30,000 armed men, 10,000 horses and 37
       elephants, marches to the gates of ancient Rome

250 Beginning of the Struggle with Hellinism

C3   Prayer beads are found on Hindu statues



300s Book of Ecclesiastes is written

306 Ptolemy establishes the capital of Egypt at Alexandria

323 Alexander the Great dies

333 - 323 Reign of Alexander the Great; Hellenization of Alexander's Empire

334 A marble monument is erected in Athens to commemorate the sponsor of
       a winning play at the great Dionysia drama contest.  A replica stands in
       Sydney's Royal Botanic Gardens. 

338 Greek Statesman King Phillip II of Macedon imposed peace on the warring
       states of Greece

341 The ancient Greek philosopher is born

350 Aristotle publishes Physics

       Aristotle invents the simple three-step story structure: 1. beginning 2. middle

384 Aristotle is born (384 - 322 BCE)  A Greek, born at Stagira in Macedonia. He
       spent much of his life studying and teaching in Athens. Socrates was a mentor
       to Plato who in turn was a mentor to Aristotle

       The Samaritans erect a temple on Mt Gerizim in the centre of Samaria, to rival the
       temple of Jerusalem on Mt Zion.

4th - 1st C The Hellenistic Period



400 Nehemiah and Esdras

       Building of the walls of Jerusalem

       Greece is broke

       The Pentateuch takes shape (First five books of the Old Testament)
          (MacCulloch, p.12) It is completed in 400

428/427 or 424/423 Plato is born (dies 348/347)

431 Medea is first performed

450  Sun Tzu writes The Art of War

450 - 400 Restoration by Ezra (priest) and Nehemiah

470 (469) Socrates is born (470 - 399)

478 The political nadir of Attic history and the history of the Hellenic world. (478 - 338)

485 Moses receives the Ten Commandments



5th C Confucius lives in China

         Buddha is said to be living in India

         Athens celebrates her Golden Age

         Book of Job is composed



500 The Bible begins to be written

515 Dedication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem

520 - 515 The Second Temple is built

520 Preaching of prophets Haggai and Zechariah to rebuild the Temple

538 The Persians defeat the Babylonians. The edict of Cyrus the Great of Persia
        frees the exiles to return to Palestine; he instructs the Jews to rebuild the Temple

550 The end of the Exile

       Isaiah writes his third book (The Book of Consolation)

562 The Temple in Jerusalem is raided by the Babylonians.

586 Judah: Babylonian Captivity

        Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple

        Rise of the Scribes

587  The Babylonians burn Jerusalem destroying its First Temple; second wave of exiles
        taken to Babylon

        Ezekiel preaches

597  The prophet Ezekiel is one of the Jews deported to Babylon by King
        Nebuchadnezzar.  He had warned his nation about this possible disaster before the
        fall of Jerusalem (Ez 1-24), but to no avail. He lived the rest of his life in exile.

598 First Babylonian capture of Jerusalem; first wave of exile

6th C Babylon is seen by the deutero Isaiah as facing the darkness of defeat in war
          (MacCulloch p.13)

          Babylonians capture and destroy Jerusalem late in the 6th C BCE (MacCulloch

          The Temple is restored late in the 6th Century (MacCulloch p.26)

          Thales, one of the seven sages of Ancient Greece, teaches 'know thyself'.

          Babylonian Exile



612 Babylonian destruction of Assyrian capital of Nineveh

621 King Josiah's reform; Jeremiah prophet in Judah



700 The Iliad, an epic poem, is written by Homer, the first epic poet in Western

       The first printed stories, which tell the story of a Sumerian king, Gilgamesh, are
       from 700 B.C.E. and were recorded on stone pillars, but there is also evidence
       that the Egyptians wrote stories almost 3,500 years ago on papyrus.
       (Damodaran, 2017, p.10-11)

701 Assyrian King Sennacherib invades Judah; Jerusalem spared

721 Assyrians defeat Israel, destroy its capital Samaria, end of the northern kingdom 

        End of the Kingdom of Israel

        Assyrian Captivity

        The Ten Lost Tribes

ca. 740 Amos, Hosea prophets in Israel

             Isaiah, Micah prophets in Judah 

8th C Amos is one of the first prophets to have left a substantial number of              
          pronouncements, writing on the fate of the Northern Kingdom of Israel
          (MacCulloch p.12). He writes in Samaria.

         The Odyssey is written

         The Assyrian Conquest

         Rome is founded

C8 - C5 The Book of Isaiah is written



800 The Book of Micah is written

        Homer writes the Odyssey

850  Elijah the prophet in Israel

9C  The Iliad is written



900 Solomon makes a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem

930 Death of Solomon

       Division of the Kingdom - Israel (North) and Judah (South)

970 Solomon is king

       The first Temple is built in Jerusalem



1000 Saul

          David becomes king; Jerusalem is capital of the monarchy

          The Trojan champion Hector fights the Greek super hero Achilles in a war over a
          faithless beauty named Helen

1100 - 800 The Kings

1200 Entry into the land of Canaan and period of the Twelve Tribes


         Troy is destroyed

         Homer writes the Odyssey (Damodaran, 2017, p.11)

         The Conquest of Palestine

         The late Bronze Age

1250 The Torah including the ten commandments are given to Moses

          Israelites are liberated from Egypt - The Exodus

1300 - 1100 The Judges

1650 Jacob and his sons go to Egypt

1800 - 1750 Old Babylonian period

1800 Call of Abraham

1900 - 1300 The Patriarchs

2100  Epic of Gilgamesh is written

3000  The city of Troy is built

          The tale of the adventures of Gilgamesh are stamped into clay tablets

8500 - 4500 Neolithic Period

13,000 Certain animals are first domesticated (Lawson, 2015, p.60)

15,000 - 13,000 'In 1940 a group of children in France came upon cave paintings of
                            animals and a human being that can be traced back more than
                            33,000 years'. (Damodaran, 2017, p.10)